Ancient History Encyclopedia. In the 12th century, foot binding became much more widespread, and by the early Qing Dynasty (in the mid-17th century), every girl who wished to marry had her feet bound. It all started when palace dancers performed with bound feet and the practice spread slowly through China! Considered an attractive quality, the effects of the process were painful and permanent. At first they had little effect, but gradually pressure came from more directions. (Gamble, 181). (Image: via wikimedia / CC0 1.0). The practice officially was sanctioned in 1902. We have also been recommended for educational use by the following publications: Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization registered in Canada. Numerous educational institutions recommend us, including Oxford University and Michigan State University and University of Missouri. In order to gain the emperor’s favor, the other concubines then attempted the practice; after all, Yao Niang was the emperor’s favorite concubine. The practice usually started before the arch of the foot had a chance to develop fully, typically between the ages of 4 and 9, although some were as young as 3. She learned Chinese, built a network of very well-­‐connected individuals, and in 1895 formed an anti-­‐footbinding association with a small number of influential and energetic Chinese and western women. These dancers were known for their small feet and bow-shoes which had upturned toes. Living History: Bound Feet Women of China. The process began by choosing an auspicious day in the calendar. The earliest relevant written records date to the 13th century and refer to the fame of the dancing girls with tiny feet and beautiful bow shoes at the court of the Southern Tang Dynasty (937-975) in southern-central China. He holds an MA in Political Philosophy and is the Publishing Director at AHE. Related Content Each time the feet were unbound, they were washed, the toes carefully checked for injury, and the nails carefully and meticulously trimmed. (Image: United States Library of Congress via wikimedia ). Millions of Chinese women bound their feet, a status symbol that allowed them to marry into money. The Effects of Foot-binding on the Foot Bonesby Marco L (Public Domain). The marriage prospects for such a girl were dim indeed. There are a few suggestions for the origin of foot binding, however, the general view is it originated from the time of Emperor Li Yu (Southern Tang of the Ten Kingdoms, just before the Song Dynasty). That's a lot of wiggle room and just goes to show how fuzzy history can get sometimes. Foot binding was outlawed in 1911 because it was causing many deaths. Another reason for its popularity may have been a desire to clearly differentiate upper-class Chinese women, the Han in particular, from the lower classes, those women from the provinces, and those belonging to cultures from newly acquired territories. Inside The Disturbing Practice Of Chinese Foot Binding, The Three-Inch Golden Lotus: A Novel on Foot Binding. It generally began when girls were 4 to 7 years old, because at that age the bones in their feet were still fairly soft and pliable, and thus easier to reshape [source: Footwear History].. First, the feet were softened in hot water. Cartwright, Mark. Immediately after this agonizing procedure, the feet were bound in place using cotton or silk bandages, 3 meters long and 5 cm wide (10 ft by 2 in). All the toes, except the big toes, were broken and held tightly against the sole of the foot, while the arch was strained as the foot was bent double until it was forcibly broken, making a triangle shape. Our latest articles delivered to your inbox, once a week: Our mission is to engage people with cultural heritage and to improve history education worldwide. Cultures. Foot binding was first reported during the Five Dynasties and Ten States period in the tenth and eleventh century. Four to six was the ideal age, as you could reason with the girls and help them deal with the pain. Vision Times tells the world everything about China in today’s context. (Turtleback School & Library Binding Edition... Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike, Fred Blake, C. "Foot-Binding in Neo-Confucian China and the Appropriation of Female Labor. The practice of female foot-binding in China originated in the mid-900s, after Emperor Li Yu was tantalized by a dancer who “bound her feet into the shape of a new moon.” Within a couple hundred years, it had become customary for girls to begin having their feet systematically massaged, broken and bound at the age of 5. After the Nationalist Revolution in 1911, footbinding was outlawed in 1912. The Binding Chair: or, A Visit from the Foot Emancipation Society. The smaller the feet, the more attractive they were, and it became a distinct mark of elegance. Web. By the 21st century, only a few elderly women remained with bound feet. Please support Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation. There thus developed a certain peer pressure amongst families to perform the process on their daughters or risk not finding them eligible husbands. Little by little,it would start breaking bones from all the body. During the process, young girls either couldn't support the pain or they usually were infected. It was not uncommon for one or more toes to be lost or to have infections in the foot or gangrene. Young girls, between the age of 5-7, had their toes tucked under their feet, and then had their feet wrapped in long pieces of cloth to hold their toes in place. Written by Mark Cartwright, published on 27 September 2017 under the following license: Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. 5. manchu women can marry although they have not bound feet, but they have right to choice to accept or refuse,and officials don't support that is why most of manchu people don't have bound feet until late qing dynasty, This colonization coincided with the height of foot binding. Over time, decorative shoes got smaller and smaller as the heel and sole were crushed together. How did foot binding come to an end? Copyright Policy and Infringement Notification. The ban was reasonably effective in the coastal cities, but foot-binding continued unabated in much of the countryside. The End Of Foot Binding In China ... , because they have the potential to start transformational change 1 2. It is said that the practice of foot binding originated among court dancers in the early Song Dynasty (960-1279). Imagine massaging your 3-year-old daughter’s feet, then you grab her little toes and curl them under her foot, then you press with excessive force downward and squeeze them into the sole of the foot until her toes break. The feet were unbound after one month, any ulcerations of the skin treated, and the foot rebound again. Gradually, other court ladies—with money, time and a void to fill—took up foot-binding, making it … In this position, the feet were tightly bound using long strips of cloth, which then restricted any future growth and gave the foot a pronounced arch. For most, the bound feet eventually became numb. The bindings were loosened and re-tightened thereafter once each month until the girl reached her early teens. The process usually started during the winter months hoping the feet would be numb, and therefore the pain would not be as extreme. The ends of the binding cloth were even sewn so that the girl could not loosen it. Those who had their feet bound to become more desirable, now found themselves being abandoned by their husbands, as it was no longer fashionable. It was also a form of deformation. Emperor Li Yu created a six-foot tall golden lotus decorated with precious stones and pearls, and asked his concubine Yao Niang (zh) to bind her feet in white silk into the shape of the crescent moon, and performed a ballet-like dance on the points of her feet on the lotus. The Ancient History Encyclopedia logo is a registered EU trademark. (The opposition to foot binding) ... something that could only be achieved through foot binding. Certainly, the binding of feet to reduce their size was long-associated with women who earned their money entertaining men in one way or another. (Image: SCMP). Some believe that the practice started after the Tang Dynasty (which ended in 907 AD). Although critics campaigned against the practice in support of women, an unexpected side effect occurred; those who had their feet bound to become more desirable now found themselves being abandoned by their husbands, as it was no longer fashionable. Foot-binding was a practice first carried out on young girls in Tang Dynasty China to restrict their normal growth and make their feet as small as possible. The big toe was left facing forwards while the four smaller toes were bent under the foot. Please note that content linked from this page may have different licensing terms. (Image: YouTube/Screenshot via Living History: Bound Feet Women of China), Follow us on Twitter or subscribe to our weekly email. That foot-binding became very common is evidenced by the fact that Chinese writers from the 12th to 14th century CE anticipate their readers are familiar with it. They became strong advocates against the practice, producing pamphlets and even opening shelters in support of afflicted women. The friar made the following note on the practice: And with the women the great beauty is to have little feet; and for this reason mothers are accustomed, as soon as girls are born to them, to swathe their feet tightly so that they can never grow in the least. Books (Image: YouTube/Screenshot via Living History: Bound Feet Women of China). Actually there were many Chinese reformers who tried to ban foot binding in 19th century. Foot binding would normally occur in a ritualistic ceremony accompanied by other traditions intending to ward off bad luck. Some Rights Reserved (2009-2020) under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license unless otherwise noted. 23 Dec 2020. Studies of a sample village of over 500 families in 1929 CE (Tinghsien) showed that it was almost a universal practice amongst women over 40 years of age but reduced to around half when considering the female population as a whole. Invention. Taiwan President Tsai... Come explore the Woodnest Cabins and experience the beauty of the wild. On each passing, the bandage was tightened, pulling the ball of the foot and the heel together, causing the broken foot to fold at the arch. The widespread nature of the practice by aristocrats meant that lower class parents saw foot-binding as an opportunity to raise the prospects of their own children. This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon this content non-commercially, as long as they credit the author and license their new creations under the identical terms. Footbinding has been compared to other ways to “perfect” the female body, such as corsets and female genital cutting or mutilation. Four to six was the ideal age, as you could reason with the girls and help them deal with the pain. It was respectable to have four-inch feet — a silver lotus — but five inches or longer was dismissed as iron lotuses. ", Gamble, S.D. When Did Foot Binding Start? Facing increasing aggression from Communist China, Taiwan has undertaken the domestic production of eight indigenous submarines to protect its territorial autonomy. In this paper the author traces the origin of foot binding, process of foot binding, reasons for foot binding, physiological implication, opposition and abolishment of foot binding. Cite This Work "Foot-Binding." It is not clear when footbinding began but it is commonly linked to the second ruler of the Tang Dynasty Li Yu (937-978). Binding your feet was very dangerous. Widely used as a method to distinguish girls of the upper class from everyone else, and later as a way for the lower classes to improve their social prospects, the practice of foot-binding would continue right up to the early 20th century CE. Many women had bound feet, and they bound their daughter's feet too. Foot-binding phenomenon began in the Five Dynasties period. When all was ready, the task was done by the older women of the family or by a professional foot-binder. (12) Foot binding is said to have started as an indicator of Chinese class, but as time progressed, the tradition became more commonplace. (Image: wikimedia / CC0 1.0). The practice of binding feet may have started with the dancer Yaoniang, who performed in the Tang dynasty court, or more generally the Turkic dancers who performed there during the 10th century CE. In the 19th century, toward the end of the Qing Dynasty, Western countries had effectively colonized China, with many Westerners moving to the country. An additional test of a girl’s suitability was her being set the task of making small shoes for the bound feet of her future in-laws. The Effects of Foot-binding on the Foot Bones. Conversely, people in the provinces and peripheral regions of China wanted to copy the 'civilising' practices of imperial China. The foot binding process was long, excruciatingly painful and pretty gross. Finally, aristocratic young men of the Tang period were becoming more refined in dress and appearance so that foot-binding may have been an attempt to further distinguish the sexes. There developed certain proverbs, too, like Teng er bu teng xue, teng nu bu, teng jiao, meaning something like “if you care for your children, do not worry if your son suffers for his studies or your daughter for her feet” (Blake, 681). Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization. The world began to regard foot binding as something that was an integral part of the old China and became a custom that was deemed as barbaric. However, there was no significant result about it. According to the story, an emperor had a favorite concubine, a dancer who built a gilded stage in the shape of a lotus flower. Foot binding, or 'lotus feet', stands as a symbol of a bygone China. The first mention in historical records dates to when the Tang court was at Nanking between 937 and 975 CE. With servants to perform menial tasks, a lady’s mobility was limited even in normal circumstances, but with bound feet, walking must have only been achieved with great difficulty. Answer (1 of 6): Footbinding started during the Tang Dynasty. Don’t Miss These Wildlife Safari Adventures in the Heart of the U.S. Uncovering Chinese ‘Friendship’ Groups in Europe, Practicing Medicine Requires Medical Ethics, China’s Fixation With Blame Theories on Origin of the CCP Coronavirus, US Slapping Fresh Sanctions on 59 Chinese Entities, Taiwan Begins Domestic Submarine Production to Protect From Mainland Threat, Woodnest Cabins: Experience the Wilderness at Its Best. Eventually, it spread. According to a legend, a beautiful concubine danced on her toes like a ballerina inside of a giant lotus flower. The ends of the binding cloth were even sewn so that the girl could not loosen it. The bindings were loosened and re-tightened thereafter once each month until the girl reached her early teens (or even longer depending on the desired effect). For only $5 per month you can become a member and support our mission to engage people with cultural heritage and to improve history education worldwide. The first mention in historical records dates to when the Tang court was at Nanking between 937 and 975 CE. Supposedly, it started after the Emperor told everyone why he loved his wife so much - she had small feet. The bandages were wound in a figure-eight movement, starting from the inside of the foot (the instep), then over the toes, under the foot, and around the heel, ensuring the freshly broken toes were pressing tightly into the sole of the foot. Mark is a history writer based in Italy. Basically, the idea was to keep breaking the foot whenever it grew too large, a process that usually took between two and three years. Please help us create teaching materials on Mesopotamia (including several complete lessons with worksheets, activities, answers, essay questions, and more), which will be free to download for teachers all over the world. There are lots... What Did The Chinese Invent? (Image: United States Library of Congress via wikimedia ). 20th Century. For marriageable daughters, foot size translated into its own form of currency and a means of achieving upward mobility. It has been estimated that by the 19th century, 40-50 percent of all Chinese women may have had bound feet, and up to almost 100 percent among upper-class Han Chinese women. The Tang Dynasty (618-907 CE) is regularly cited as the greatest... Chinese culture is one of the oldest in the world today. According to history, an emperor's favorite concubine danced on a gilded lotus flower with bound feet, which gained the emperor's favor. The first recorded binding occurred in the Five Dynasties and Ten States period in the 10th … First, each foot would be soaked in a warm mixture of herbs and animal blood; this was intended to soften the foot and aid the binding. Then, all the toes, except the big toes, were broken and held tightly against the sole of the foot while the arch was strained as the foot was bent double until it was forcibly broken making a triangle shape. The smaller the feet, the more attractive they were, and it became a distinct mark of elegance, even the style of the way a woman with bound feet would walk became a necessity for all women; small, light steps was seen as elegant. The practice wasn't more or less completely stamped out until the Communists finally won the Chinese Civil War in 1949. These dancers were known for their small feet and “bow-shoes” which had upturned toes. Woman with Bound Feetby Unknown Artist (Public Domain). Other stories say foot binding began during Tang times. The binding would be so tight the girl could not move her toes at all. By the time Mao Zedong took control of China in 1949, foot binding had mostly vanished, with the exception a few remote, mountainous areas in the country. The upper-class women, wanting to be like the beautiful Empress, started to bind their feet, breaking them so they would be smaller. Last modified September 27, 2017. The foot binding practice ended in the beginning of 20th century due to the extensive anti foot binding campaigns. Foot binding is an old Chinese custom of wrapping girls' feet with cloth in order to stop them from growing with age. There is one country where this was practiced; this practice was called foot binding or lotus feet. The practice of binding feet may have started with the dancer Yaoniang, who performed in the Tang dynasty court, or more generally the Turkic dancers who performed there during the 10th century CE. When—and why—did the practice of foot binding begin? For these women, the process that began with a lot of pain and tears would likewise have ended with pain and tears. Then, the toenails were cut back as far as possible to prevent in-grown nails and subsequent infections. 4. some manchu women did this, don't mean that they really know the pain, manchu women's foot binding is more easy than han women, and is not extreme just like han women. What If You Had Animal Feet? X-ray of bound feet. The girl’s broken feet required a great deal of care and attention, and they would be unbound regularly. So, foot binding started with the royal court and then spread throughout China, beginning in the south of the country and soon reaching the north. The practice of foot binding does not have an actual date of when it started; however there are many legends as to when the practice began and why. It is said that Yao Niang [the Emperor’s most favored concubine] bound her feet into a hoof-like shape and danced on the image of a large lotus flower . "Foot-Binding." NPR dates the origins of foot binding to 961, while other stories put it somewhere around 1700 BC. Ancient History Encyclopedia, 27 Sep 2017. The practice became widespread among the upper classes during the Song dynasty (960-1279 CE), especial… Emperor K’ang Hsi made another attempt in 1662 CE but, realising he was fighting a losing battle against parents, he withdrew the ban in 1668 CE. The end of foot binding From the latter half of the 19th century onwards there were more and more movements to ban foot binding. The origins of ancient Chinese foot binding are unclear. In the year 1645, the Shunshi emperor issued a mandate banning foot binding, however, this emperor’s successor, Kangxi, revoked the ban based on the fact that foot binding was a custom that was firmly rooted in Chinese traditions and customs had to be revoked … Around the same time, Chinese intellectuals who had studied abroad in Europe and in North America returned to China and indicated their support for abolishment. https://www.ancient.eu/Foot-Binding/. It started in China in the 10th century and was only completely abolished in the 20th. Cartwright, Mark. In the 12th century, foot binding became much more widespread, and by the early Qing Dynasty (in the mid-17th century), every girl who wished to marry had her feet bound. When—and why—did the practice of foot binding begin? History of Foot Binding. "The Disappearance of Foot-Binding in Tinghsien. The lack of mobility would not have greatly affected working women in their traditional household employment of spinning, weaving, sewing, and embroidery. Facts about Chinese Foot Binding 6: the negative impact of foot binding The aim of the long and excruciating process was to have feet no longer than 7.5-10 cm (3-4 inches), known as jinlian — “Golden Lotus” or “Lotus” feet, though few individuals actually achieved that goal. The broken feet were also kneaded to soften them and the soles of the girl’s feet were often beaten to make the joints and broken bones more flexible. With so many Western women entering the country, there was a strong push against the practice, especially from the wives of Christian missionaries. Foot binding originally began in the 10th century. This would humiliate the woman as she would have never shown her bare feet to anyone — not even her husband would have seen her feett. Results of Bounded Feet. His special interests include pottery, architecture, world mythology and discovering the ideas that all civilizations share in common. Even as an adult a woman continued to wrap her deformed feet in bindings, wearing them at all times in public and when bathing. The first recorded binding occurred in the Five Dynasties and Ten States period in the 10th century. Cartwright, M. (2017, September 27). The Qing poet Yuan Mei (1716-1797 CE) was one notable figure who was publicly against foot-binding, and Confucian scholars remained unimpressed, associated as it was with women of the ‘entertainment’ industry and having the sole purpose of making the woman more attractive. Foot binding was a custom practiced on young girls and women for approximately one thousand years in China, beginning in the 10th century and ending in the early 20th century. Whenever it started, it was a barbaric practice. Footbinding was banned in 1912, but some … Next prayers and offerings were offered to the Tiny-Footed Maiden Goddess; another recipient was the Buddhist figure of Guanyin, a bodhisattva or enlightened one who was thought to protect women in general. When—and why—did the practice of foot binding begin? Thank you! The start of the practice can be traced back to 700 AD, and was not legally banned until 1911. A small foot in China was no different to a tiny waist in Victorian England, representing the height of female refinement. The aim of the long & excruciating process was to have feet no longer than 7.5-10 cm, when they were known as “Golden Lotus”. (Image: via wikimedia / CC0 1.0). One legend suggests foot binding began during the reign of Li Yu (961-975) who ruled one region of china, according to … The aimed result of the long and excruciating process was to have feet no longer than 7.5-10 cm (3-4 inches), when they were known as jinlian - “Golden Lotus” or “Lotus” feet after the central life symbol of Buddhism. Southern Tang emperor Li Yu’s concubine Gong Bin wrapped around the feet with cloth, it was in “crescent” shape. When and where did foot binding start and end? ". She wore plain socks, and danced on the lotus which was made of gold. Four to six was the ideal age, as you could reason with the girls and help them deal with the pain. Retrieved from https://www.ancient.eu/Foot-Binding/. We keep a close eye on China because of its influence now and the lessons we can learn from its ancient past to better our lives today. By the 18th century CE there were occasional popular movements to stop the practice but still, despite the pains and consequences, foot-binding remained a common practice in China into the early 20th century CE. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Foot-Binding. The same was true of the style of walking a woman with bound feet was now forced to adopt - small, light steps. (Image: YouTube/Screenshot via Living History: Bound Feet Women of China). When the Qing Dynasty fell in 1911 and 1912, the new Nationalist government banned foot-binding again. The bindings were loosened and retightened thereafter once each month until the girl reached her early teens (or even longer depending on the desired effect). Despite the pains and consequences, foot-binding remained a common practice in China into the early 20th century. Ancient History Encyclopedia Limited is a non-profit company registered in the United Kingdom. Mothers, grandmothers, or older female relatives were usually the first to bind the girl’s feet. Chinese girls had their feet bound typically from the age of five to eight. It has been estimated that by the 19th century, 40-50 percent of all Chinese women may have had bound feet, and up to almost 100 percent among upper-class Han Chinese women. However, the practice did not truly end until the creation of the People’s Republic of China in 1949. Introduction The ancient custom of foot binding was practiced in China from about the 10th century and ended in 1911. Europe has emerged as the new focus for the Chinese Communist Party’s (CCP) global campaign of political influence. Card 1: Foot Binding By: Roana Yousefzai Other Forms of Body Mutilation that are Popular to Make Woman Look Beautiful Bibliography Other forms of body mutilation that are popular to make woman look beautiful are the following: tattoos piercings surgical changes of the body Then, all the toes, except the big toes, were broken and held tightly against the sole of the foot while the arch was strained as the foot was bent double until it was forcibly broken making a triangle shape. After the Qing Dynasty fell, foot binding became unfashionable. Obviously being a painful process and leaving women so treated with permanent problems of mobility, which also seriously limited any role they could take on in wider society, the practice was not without its critics. Is said that the practice spread slowly through China on girls of classes. Encyclopedia logo is a non-profit company registered in Canada the creation of the 19th century onwards there were more more... 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